Tibial Nerve (L5 – S2)

  • Function: Flex and invert the foot and provide sensation to the lateral leg and the sole of the foot.
  • Anatomy:
    • In the popliteal fossa the tibial nerve gives off the sensory sural nerve (provides sensation to calf and lateral aspect of foot).
    • It then descends in the calf and innervates the gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallicus longus muscles.
    • Finally, it enters the ankle posterior to the medial malleolus and passes through the tarsal tunnel to terminate as the medial and lateral plantar nerves which have motor and sensory branches
      •  Motor innervation to the small muscles of the foot (interossei, toe abductors/adductors, and flexors)
      •  Sensory innervation to the sole of the foot via plantar and calcaneal nerves

Tibial Nerve1

Sole of Foot Sensory Map

Tibial Muscles 1

Tibial Muscle Actions

“Tom, Dick And Very Nervous Harry” is a mnemonic for remembering the structures that pass posterior to the medial malleolus at the ankle.

T = tibialis posterior tendon
D = flexor digitorum tendon
A = posterior tibial artery
V = posterior tibial veins (usually a pair on either side of the artery)
N = tibial nerve
H = flexor hallucis longus tendon

Medial Mallelous Anatomy

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